ZATT Protein Repairs Damaged DNA
Scientists at the National Institute of Health have detected a new mechanism to save healthy cells from dangerous DNA damage that remains after cancer treatments known as a DNA-protein crosslink (DPC). This new mechanism can fix and repair DPCs. DPCs are formed during cancer therapies. A protein named ZATT was discovered by researchers to help eradicate DPCs but with the presence and assistance of another protein known as TDP2. The presence of protein TDP2 is crucial for eliminating DPCs.
In order to do this, researchers studied the bond between TDP2 and ZATT so as to help remove and fix DPCs perfectly. They also studied the role of ZATT on how it could help TDP2 find and repair DPCs by using a multi-faceted approach. When DNA becomes tangled inside the cells, organisms use a protein called Topoisomerase 2 (TOP2) to untangle and divide the DNA into threads. TOP2 conceals DNA ends within the core of the TOP2 protein that encircles DNA and rejoins DNA ends. The molecular changes intensifies when TOP2 interacts with toxic substances, chemical metabolites, and tobacco, UV light exposure that causes DNA damage.
Drugs that are given to treat cancer also produces TOP2-DPCs which causes rearrangement of an organism’s genome that could lead to cancer and worsen the condition. Chemotherapy and environmental chemicals can prevent DNA from getting tangled, causing TOP2 to remain on the DNA which creates a stable TOP2-DPC complex and formation of DNA that can kill cells. In their findings, they focused on DPCs as how it could be detected and revoked. ZATT protein acts like an enzyme that calls for TDP2 when damaged DPCs are detected. Further research is being done in this field to improve patient health and develop targeted therapies. New drugs will be developed to kill cancer cells more productively without leaving any triggering substances behind. Many of the antibiotics products that are in the market use the same mechanism to damage bacterial DNA.
The changes in cancer cells are detected with the help of Targeted Therapy. These cells are responsible for their growth and spread throughout the body. Targeted Therapy blocks the growth of cancer cells by interfering with specific targeted molecules, genes and proteins. By studying cellular and DNA bonding, Targeted Therapy improves and treats patients more effectively. Monoclonal antibodies are given and they attach to specific targets on the outer surface of cancer cells.
Small-molecule drugs can block the process that helps cancer cells multiply and spread out. They inhibit the supply of blood to the tumour and stop it from forming new blood vessels. ZATT protein can locate and repair targeted damaged DNA as well and it can reverse cancer growth respectively.
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